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World Journal of Emergency Medicine ›› 2021, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (4): 268-273.doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.04.003

• Orginal Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Two-point compression ultrasonography: Enough to rule out lower extremity deep venous thrombosis?

Ralphe Bou Chebl(), Nader El Souki, Mirabelle Geha, Imad Majzoub, Rima Kaddoura, Hady Zgheib   

  1. Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
  • Received:2020-08-10 Accepted:2021-02-26 Online:2021-09-01 Published:2021-08-17
  • Contact: Ralphe Bou Chebl


BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of morbidity and is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department (ED). Point-of-care two-point compression ultrasonography has evolved as a quick and effective way of diagnosing DVT. The purpose of this study is to validate the prevalence and distribution of venous thrombi isolated to proximal lower extremity veins, other than common femoral and popliteal veins in patients with DVT.
METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study that looked at patients presenting to the ED of a tertiary care hospital between January 2014 and August 2018. The clinical presentation and laboratory and imaging results were obtained using the hospital’s electronic medical record.
RESULTS: A total of 2,507 patients underwent a lower extremity duplex ultrasound during the study period. Among them, 379 (15%) were included in the study. The percentages of isolated thrombi to the femoral vein and deep femoral vein were 7.92% and 0.53%, respectively. When the patients were stratified into the two groups of isolated DVT and two-point compression DVT, there were no statistically significant differences in the laboratory results between both groups. However, immobilized patients and patients with recent surgeries were more likely to have an isolated DVT.
CONCLUSIONS: Thrombi isolated to proximal lower extremity veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins make up 8.45% of DVTs. Given this significant number of missed DVTs, the authors recommend the addition of the femoral and deep femoral veins to the two-point compression exam.

Key words: Lower extremity, Deep venous thrombosis, Emergency department, Two-point compression ultrasonography