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Table of Content

    01 March 2024, Volume 15 Issue 2
    Review Article
    Emergency department management of acute agitation in the reproductive age female and pregnancy
    Ariella Gartenberg, Kayla Levine, Alexander Petrie
    2024, 15(2):  83-90.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.011
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    BACKGROUND: Agitation is a common presentation within emergent departments (EDs). Agitation during pregnancy should be treated as an obstetric emergency, as the distress may jeopardize both the patient and fetus. The safety of psychotropic medications in the reproductive age female has not been well established. This review aimed to explore a summary of general agitation recommendations with an emphasis on ED management of agitation during pregnancy.

    METHODS: A literature review was conducted to explore the pathophysiology of acute agitation and devise a preferred treatment plan for ED management of acute agitation in the reproductive age or pregnant female.

    RESULTS: While nonpharmacological management is preferred, ED visits for agitation often require medical management. Medication should be selected based on the etiology of agitation and the clinical setting to avoid major adverse effects. Adverse effects are common in pregnant females. For mild to moderate agitation in pregnancy, diphenhydramine is an effective sedating agent with minimal adverse effects. In moderate to severe agitation, high-potency typical psychotropics are preferred due to their neutral effects on hemodynamics. Haloperidol has become the most frequently utilized psychotropic for agitation during pregnancy. Second generation psychotropics are often utilized as second-line therapy, including risperidone. Benzodiazepines and ketamine have demonstrated adverse fetal outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: While randomized control studies cannot be ethically conducted on pregnant patients requiring sedation, animal models and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the effects of psychotropic medication exposure in utero. As the fetal risk associated with multiple doses of psychotropic medications remains unknown, weighing the risks and benefits of each agent, while utilizing the lowest effective dose remains critical in the treatment of acute agitation within the EDs.

    Original Article
    Data driven analysis reveals prognostic genes and immunological targets in human sepsis-associated acute kidney injury
    Qing Zhao, Jinfu Ma, Jianguo Xiao, Zhe Feng, Hui Liu
    2024, 15(2):  91-97.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.026
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    BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) is unclear. We analyzed co-differentially expressed genes (co-DEGs) to elucidate the underlying mechanism and intervention targets of SA-AKI.

    METHODS: The microarray datasets GSE65682, GSE30718, and GSE174220 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We identified the co-DEGs and constructed a gene co-expression network to screen the hub genes. We analyzed immune correlations and disease correlations and performed functional annotation of the hub genes. We also performed single-cell and microenvironment analyses and investigated the enrichment pathways and the main transcription factors. Finally, we conducted a correlation analysis to evaluate the role of the hub genes.

    RESULTS: Interleukin 32 (IL32) was identified as the hub gene in SA-AKI, and the main enriched signaling pathways were associated with hemopoiesis, cellular response to cytokine stimulus, inflammatory response, and regulation of kidney development. Additionally, IL32 was significantly associated with mortality in SA-AKI patients. Monocytes, macrophages, T cells, and NK cells were closely related to IL32 and were involved in the immune microenvironment in SA-AKI patients. IL32 expression increased significantly in the kidney of septic mouse. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was significantly and negatively correlated with IL32.

    CONCLUSION: IL32 is the key gene involved in SA-AKI and is significantly associated with prognosis. TLR2 and relevant immune cells are closely related to key genes.

    The value of toxicological analysis in acute poisoning patients with uncertain exposure histories: a retrospective and descriptive study from an institute of poisoning
    Qifang Shi, Gen Ba, Zhenyu Xia, Zhengsheng Mao, Hao Sun, Jinsong Zhang
    2024, 15(2):  98-104.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.022
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    BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, some patients might not be able or unwilling to provide a thorough history of medication and poison exposure. The aim of this study was to use toxicological analysis to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with acute poisoning whose exposure history was uncertain from a toxicological analysis perspective.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective and descriptive study from an institute of poisoning. Patient registration information and test reports spanning the period from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2022, were obtained. Patients with uncertain exposure histories and who underwent toxicological analysis were included. Clinical manifestations and categories of toxics were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Among the 195 patients with positive toxicological analysis results, the main causes of uncertain exposure history was disturbance of consciousness (62.6%), unawareness (23.6%) and unwillingness or lack of cooperation (13.8%). The predominant clinical manifestations were disturbed consciousness (62.6%), followed by vomiting and nausea (14.4%) and liver function abnormalities (8.7%). A comparison of clinical manifestations between patients with positive and negative (n=99) toxicological analyses results revealed significantly different proportions of disturbances in consciousness (63% vs. 21%), dizziness (1.5% vs. 5.1%), multi-organ failure (1.5% vs. 7.1%), and local pain (0 vs 4%). The main categories of substances involved were psychiatric medications (23.1%), sedatives (20.5%), insecticides (13.8%), and herbicides (12.8%).

    CONCLUSION: The clinical manifestations of acute poisoning in patients with an uncertain exposure history are diverse and nonspecific, and toxicological analysis plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of such patients.

    Impact of next-generation sequencing on antimicrobial treatment in immunocompromised adults with suspected infections
    Jia Li, Jiazhen Luo, Tao Hu, Ling Cheng, Weiwei Shang, Li Yan
    2024, 15(2):  105-110.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.025
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    BACKGROUND: Prompt pathogen identification can have a substantial impact on the optimization of antimicrobial treatment. The objective of the study was to assess the diagnostic value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for identifying pathogen and its clinical impact on antimicrobial intervention in immunocompromised patients with suspected infections.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Between January and August 2020, 47 adult immunocompromised patients underwent NGS testing under the following clinical conditions: 1) prolonged fever and negative conventional cultures; 2) new-onset fever despite empiric antimicrobial treatment; and 3) afebrile with suspected infections on imaging. Clinical data, including conventional microbial test results and antimicrobial treatment before and after NGS, were collected. Data were analyzed according to documented changes in antimicrobial treatment (escalated, no change, or de-escalated) after the NGS results.

    RESULTS: The median time from hospitalization to NGS sampling was 19 d. Clinically relevant pathogens were detected via NGS in 61.7% of patients (29/47), more than half of whom suffered from fungemia (n=17), resulting in an antimicrobial escalation in 53.2% of patients (25/47) and antimicrobial de-escalation in 0.2% of patients (1/47). Antimicrobial changes were mostly due to the identification of fastidious organisms such as Legionella, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Candida. In the remaining three cases, NGS detected clinically relevant pathogens also detected by conventional cultures a few days later. The antimicrobial treatment was subsequently adjusted according to the susceptibility test results. Overall, NGS changed antimicrobial management in 55.3% (26/47) of patients, and conventional culture detected clinically relevant pathogens in 14.9% of the patients (7/47).

    CONCLUSION: With its rapid identification and high sensitivity, NGS could be a promising tool for identifying relevant pathogens and enabling rapid appropriate treatment in immunocompromised patients with suspected infections.

    Protective mechanism of quercetin in alleviating sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome based on network pharmacology and in vitro experiments
    Weichao Ding, Wei Zhang, Juan Chen, Mengmeng Wang, Yi Ren, Jing Feng, Xiaoqin Han, Xiaohang Ji, Shinan Nie, Zhaorui Sun
    2024, 15(2):  111-120.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.030
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    BACKGROUND: Sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment is available currently. Quercetin is a natural plant product with many pharmacological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to elucidate the protective mechanism of quercetin against sepsis-related ARDS.

    METHODS: In this study, network pharmacology and in vitro experiments were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of quercetin against sepsis-related ARDS. Core targets and signaling pathways of quercetin against sepsis-related ARDS were screened and were verified by in vitro experiments.

    RESULTS: A total of 4,230 targets of quercetin, 360 disease targets of sepsis-related ARDS, and 211 intersection targets were obtained via database screening. Among the 211 intersection targets, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), albumin (ALB), AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were identified as the core targets. A Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed 894 genes involved in the inflammatory response, apoptosis regulation, and response to hypoxia. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis identified 106 pathways. After eliminating and generalizing, the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), TNF, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathways were identified. Molecular docking revealed that quercetin had good binding activity with the core targets. Moreover, quercetin blocked the HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. It also suppressed the inflammatory response, oxidative reactions, and cell apoptosis.

    CONCLUSION: Quercetin ameliorates sepsis-related ARDS by binding to its core targets and blocking the HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways to reduce inflammation, cell apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

    Risk factors for postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder after emergency admission
    Fengxia Du, Jun Zha, Yan Li, Lichao Fang, Shuyu Xia, Youjia Yu
    2024, 15(2):  121-125.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.013
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    BACKGROUND: Postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in women who give birth after emergency admission. The identification of risk factors for this condition is crucial for developing effective preventive measures. This retrospective study aimed to explore the incidence and risk factors for postpartum PTSD in women who give birth after emergency admission.

    METHODS: Medical records of women who gave birth after emergency admission were collected between March 2021 and April 2023. The patients’ general conditions and perinatal clinical indicators were recorded. The puerperae were divided into PTSD group and control group based on symptom occurrence at six weeks postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors.

    RESULTS: A total of 276 puerperae were included, with a PTSD incidence of 20.3% at six weeks postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified emergency cesarean section (odds ratio [OR]=2.102; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.114-3.966, P=0.022), admission to the emergency department after midnight (12:00 AM) (OR=2.245; 95%CI: 1.170-4.305, P<0.001), and cervical dilation (OR=3.203; 95%CI 1.670-6.141, P=0.039) as independent risk factors for postpartum PTSD. Analgesia pump use (OR= 0.500; 95%CI 0.259-0.966, P=0.015) was found to be a protective factor against postpartum PTSD.

    CONCLUSION: Emergency cesarean section, admission to the emergency department after midnight, and cervical dilation were identified as independent risk factors for postpartum PTSD, while analgesic pump use was a protective factor. These findings provide insights for developing more effective preventive measures for women who give birth after emergency admission.

    Effect of a cervical collar on optic nerve sheath diameter in trauma patients
    Mümin Murat Yazici, Özcan Yavaşi̇
    2024, 15(2):  126-130.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.023
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    BACKGROUND: As advocated in advanced trauma life support and prehospital trauma life support protocols, cervical immobilization is applied until cervical spine injury is excluded. This study aimed to show the difference in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) between patients with and without a cervical collar using computed tomography (CT).

    METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study examining trauma patients who presented to the emergency department between January 1, 2021, and December 31, 2021. The ONSD on brain CT of the trauma patients was measured and analyzed to determine whether there was a difference between the ONSD with and without the cervical collar.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 169 patients. On CT imaging of patients with (n=66) and without (n=103) cervical collars, the mean ONSD in the axial plane were 5.43 ± 0.50 mm and 5.04 ± 0.46 mm respectively for the right eye and 5.50 ± 0.52 mm and 5.11 ± 0.46 mm respectively for the left eye. The results revealed an association between the presence of a cervical collar and the mean ONSD, which was statistically significant (P<0.001) for both the right and left eyes.

    CONCLUSION: A cervical collar may be associated with increased ONSD. The effect of this increase in the ONSD on clinical outcomes needs to be investigated, and the actual need for cervical collar in the emergency department should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

    Research Letter
    Utilization of biomarkers for the prognostic prediction of cardiac arrest survivors using a multi-modal approach
    Changshin Kang, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Byeong Kwon Park, Jae Kwang Lee, Byung Kook Lee
    2024, 15(2):  131-134.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.029
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    Value of procalcitonin and presepsin in the diagnosis and severity stratification of sepsis and septic shock
    Enfeng Ren, Hongli Xiao, Guoxing Wang, Yongzhen Zhao, Han Yu, Chunsheng Li
    2024, 15(2):  135-138.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.028
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    Case Letter
    Pulmonary embolism secondary to acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a case report
    Lin Yuan, Hong Li, Yuhong Mi, Ying Liang
    2024, 15(2):  139-141.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.017
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    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type autoimmune encephalitis with severe pneumonia: a case report
    Yi Gu, Xiandong Liu, Tiancao Dong, Qian Yang, Xiaowei Bao, Dongyang Zhao, Lunxian Tang
    2024, 15(2):  142-146.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.024
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    A case of Rickettsia felis infection-induced encephalitis in a pregnant woman
    Jinghua Qiu, Hui Feng, Lijun Liu, Jianjun Zhu
    2024, 15(2):  150-152.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.019
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    Beware of the serious harm of veterinary drug poisoning: a case report
    Ping Dai, Jin Sun, Tongyue Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Zixi Wen, Tianzi Jian, Aerbusili Genjiafu, Baotian Kan, Xiangdong Jian
    2024, 15(2):  153-155.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.020
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    Duplicated gallbladder with acute cholecystitis: a case of unusual presentation and diagnostic challenges
    Eren Ogut, Fatos Belgin Yildirim, Osman Memis
    2024, 15(2):  156-158.  doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2024.021
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