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    A cadaveric model for transesophageal echocardiography transducer placement training: A pilot study
    Ryan W. Horton, Kian R. Niknam, Viveta Lobo, Kathryn H. Pade, Drew Jones, Kenton L. Anderson
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2022, 13 (1): 18-22.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2022.005
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    BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is used in the emergency department to guide resuscitation during cardiac arrest. Insertion of a TEE transducer requires manual skill and experience, yet in some residency programs cardiac arrest is uncommon, so some physicians may lack the means to acquire the manual skills to perform TEE in clinical practice. For other infrequently performed procedural skills, simulation models are used. However, there is currently no model that adequately simulates TEE transducer insertion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using a cadaveric model to teach TEE transducer placement among novice users.
    METHODS: A convenience sample of emergency medicine residents was enrolled during a procedure education session using cadavers as tissue models. A pre-session assessment was used to determine prior knowledge and confidence regarding TEE manipulation. Participants subsequently attended a didactic and hands-on education session on TEE placement. All participants practised placing the TEE transducer until they were able to pass a standardized assessment of technical skill (SATS). After the educational session, participants completed a post-session assessment.
    RESULTS: Twenty-five residents participated in the training session. Mean assessment of knowledge improved from 6.2/10 to 8.7/10 (95% confidence interval [CI] of knowledge difference 1.6-3.2, P<0.001) and confidence improved from 1.6/5 to 3.1/5 (95% CI of confidence difference 1.1-2.0, P<0.001). There was no relationship between training level and the delta in knowledge or confidence.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, the use of a cadaveric model to teach TEE transducer placement methods among novice users is feasible and improves both TEE manipulation knowledge and confidence levels.

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    Emergency department electric scooter injuries after the introduction of shared e-scooter services: A retrospective review of 3,331 cases
    Ittai Shichman, Or Shaked, Shai Factor, Ahuva Weiss-Meilik, Amal Khoury
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2022, 13 (1): 5-10.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2022.002
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    BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency, characteristics, and use of resources related to electric scooter (e-scooter) injuries in the emergency department (ED) of a major metropolitan area hospital.
    METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all ED presentations related to e-scooter injuries at a level I trauma center between May 2017 and February 2020. We identified ED presentation data, injury-related data, patients’ clinical course after evaluation, injury diagnosis, surgical procedures, and ED readmissions.
    RESULTS: A total of 3,331 patients with e-scooter injuries presented to the ED over a 34-month period. There was a 6-fold increase in e-scooter-related injuries presenting to the ED, from an average of 26.9 injuries per month before the introduction of shared e-scooter services in August 2018 to an average of 152.6 injuries per month after its introduction. The average injury rate during weekdays was 3.27 per day, with the majority of injuries occurring in the afternoon. The most common mechanism of injury was rider fall (79.1%). There were a total of 2,637 orthopedic injuries, of which 599 (22.7%) were fractures. A total of 296 (8.9%) patients were hospitalized following the initial ED admission, and 462 surgeries were performed within 7 days of ED arrival.
    CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the shared e-scooter services is associated with a dramatic increase in e-scooter injuries presenting to the ED. E-scooter use carries considerably underestimated injury risks of high-energy trauma and misunderstood mechanisms of injuries. These injuries challenge the healthcare system, with a major impact on both EDs and surgical departments.

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    Tranexamic acid for major trauma patients in Ireland
    Kieran Walsh, Francis O’Keeffe, Louise Brent, Biswadev Mitra
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2022, 13 (1): 11-17.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2022.003
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    BACKGROUND: The Clinical Randomisation of an Anti-fibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage-2 (CRASH-2) is the largest randomized control trial (RCT) examining circulatory resuscitation for trauma patients to date and concluded a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality in patients administered tranexamic acid (TXA) within 3 hours of injury. Since the publication of CRASH-2, significant geographical variance in the use of TXA for trauma patients exists. This study aims to assess TXA use for major trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock in Ireland after the publication of CRASH-2.
    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data derived from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN). All injured patients in Ireland between January 2013 and December 2018 who had evidence of hemorrhagic shock on presentation (as defined by systolic blood pressure [SBP] <100 mmHg [1 mmHg=0.133 kPa] and administration of blood products) were eligible for inclusion. Death at hospital discharge was the primary outcome.
    RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 234 patients met the inclusion criteria. Among injured patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock, 133 (56.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 50.2%-63.3%) received TXA. Of patients that received TXA, a higher proportion of patients presented with shock index >1 (70.68% vs.57.43%) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS >25; 49.62% vs. 23.76%). Administration of TXA was not associated with mortality at hospital discharge (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% CI 0.31-2.38).
    CONCLUSIONS: Among injured Irish patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock, TXA was administered to 56.8% of patients. Patients administered with TXA were on average more severely injured. However, a mortality benefit could not be demonstrated.

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    Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to suspension trauma syndrome: A systematic review of definition, pathophysiology, and management controversies
    Patrizio Petrone, Sofía Espinoza-Villalobos, Gerard A. Baltazar, Kjetil Søreide, Adam Stright, Collin E.M. Brathwaite, D’Andrea K. Joseph
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2021, 12 (4): 253-260.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.04.001
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    BACKGROUND: Suspension trauma syndrome is a life-threatening event that occurs when a person is “trapped” in a prolonged passive suspension. It is most commonly seen in people who engage in occupational or sport activities that require harness suspension. The aim of this study is to identify the predisposing factors, pathophysiology, and management of suspension trauma.
    METHODS: A review and analysis of the literature published in English and Spanish from 1972 to 2020 on suspension trauma were performed. Search sources were PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, MeSH, UpToDate, and Google Scholar. Articles referring to suspension trauma associated with other injury mechanisms (traumatic impact injuries, drowning, asphyxiation, or bleeding), case reports, and pediatric population were excluded.
    RESULTS: Forty-one articles were identified. Of these, 29 articles related to mechanism, pathophysiology, and management of individuals who suffered prolonged suspension trauma without associated traumatic injuries were included in the study. We encountered several controversies describing the putative pathophysiology, ranging from blood sequestration in the lower extremities versus accumulation of metabolic waste and hyperkalemia to dorsal hook-type harness as a trigger cause of positional asphyxia; to vascular compression of femoral vessels exerted by the harness causing decreased venous return. Pstients suspended in a full-body harness with dorsal hook showed more hemodynamic alterations in response to the compressive effect on the rib cage, causing a reduction in perfusion by presenting a decrease in pulse pressure. Management strategies varied across studies.
    CONCLUSIONS: Progress has been made in individualizing the population at risk and in the management of suspension trauma. We recommend the formation of consensus definitions, larger cohort or registry studies to be conducted, and experimental animal models to better understand the mechanisms in order to develop management and life support guidelines from a trauma and emergency medicine perspective.

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    Saddle pulmonary embolism is not a sign of high-risk deterioration in non-high-risk patients: A propensity score-matched study
    Dong Jia, Chao Ji, Min Zhao
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2021, 12 (4): 261-267.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.04.002
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    BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding whether saddle main pulmonary artery (MPA) embolism represents a high risk of deterioration in non-high-risk acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. This study aims to address this issue by conducting a propensity score matching (PSM) study.
    METHODS: A total of 727 non-high-risk acute PE patients were retrospectively evaluated. We evaluated the Bova score and risk stratification to examine the risk of deterioration. Deterioration defined as any adverse event within 30 days after admission. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography was used to identify the embolism type. All patients were matched into four subgroups by PSM according to age, sex, Bova score, and risk stratification: (1) MPA and non-MPA embolism; (2) non-saddle MPA and non-MPA embolism; (3) saddle MPA and non-saddle MPA embolism; (4) saddle MPA and non-MPA embolism. Correlations were analyzed using Cox regression analysis, and deterioration risk was compared between subgroups using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
    RESULTS: Cox regression analysis revealed that MPA embolism was correlated with deterioration, regardless of whether saddle MPA embolism was included or excluded. Saddle MPA embolism was not correlated with deterioration, regardless of comparison with non-saddle MPA embolism or non-MPA embolism. Patients with MPA and non-saddle MPA embolism presented a high risk for deterioration (log-rank test=5.23 and 4.70, P=0.022 and 0.030, respetively), while patients with saddle MPA embolism were not at a high risk of deterioration (log-rank test=1.20 and 3.17, P=0.729 and 0.077, respetively).
    CONCLUSIONS: Saddle MPA embolism is not indicative of a high risk of deterioration in non-high-risk acute PE patients.

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    Two-point compression ultrasonography: Enough to rule out lower extremity deep venous thrombosis?
    Ralphe Bou Chebl, Nader El Souki, Mirabelle Geha, Imad Majzoub, Rima Kaddoura, Hady Zgheib
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2021, 12 (4): 268-273.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.04.003
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    BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of morbidity and is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department (ED). Point-of-care two-point compression ultrasonography has evolved as a quick and effective way of diagnosing DVT. The purpose of this study is to validate the prevalence and distribution of venous thrombi isolated to proximal lower extremity veins, other than common femoral and popliteal veins in patients with DVT.
    METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study that looked at patients presenting to the ED of a tertiary care hospital between January 2014 and August 2018. The clinical presentation and laboratory and imaging results were obtained using the hospital’s electronic medical record.
    RESULTS: A total of 2,507 patients underwent a lower extremity duplex ultrasound during the study period. Among them, 379 (15%) were included in the study. The percentages of isolated thrombi to the femoral vein and deep femoral vein were 7.92% and 0.53%, respectively. When the patients were stratified into the two groups of isolated DVT and two-point compression DVT, there were no statistically significant differences in the laboratory results between both groups. However, immobilized patients and patients with recent surgeries were more likely to have an isolated DVT.
    CONCLUSIONS: Thrombi isolated to proximal lower extremity veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins make up 8.45% of DVTs. Given this significant number of missed DVTs, the authors recommend the addition of the femoral and deep femoral veins to the two-point compression exam.

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    Accuracy of training blood volume quantification using a visual estimation tool
    Janett Kreutziger, Philip Puchner, Stefan Schmid, Wolfgang Mayer, Harald Prossliner, Wolfgang Lederer
    World Journal of Emergency Medicine    2021, 12 (3): 174-178.   DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.03.002
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    BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the use of a specially designed visual estimation tool may improve accuracy in quantifying blood volumes related to surface spreading.

    METHODS: A prospective, paired-control, single-blinded experimental study was performed at a medical university. Anesthesiologists and emergency medical personnel estimated various blood volumes on surfaces with varying absorptivity (carpet, towel, polyvinyl chloride, wooden flooring) in an experimental setting. We assessed the sensitivity of training blood volume quantification using a self-designed visual estimation tool by comparing the accuracy of visual blood volume estimations before and after practical training with the tool.

    RESULTS: A total of 352 estimations by 44 participants were evaluated. Accurate estimations improved significantly from pre-training to post-training (P<0.05). The sensitivity of blood volume quantification was 33.0% after training with the visual estimation tool. Estimations did not depend on age, profession, gender or years of the estimator’s professional experience.

    CONCLUSIONS: Training with a visual estimation tool by professional rescuers can improve the estimation accuracy of blood volumes spread on surfaces with varying absorptivity.

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