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World Journal of Emergency Medicine ›› 2017, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (3): 200-205.doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2017.03.007

• Original Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Out of hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation outcome in North India — CARO study

Chennappa Kalvatala Krishna1, Hakim Irfan Showkat2(), Meenakshi Taktani1, Vikram Khatri1   

  1. 1 Department of Cardiology, Moolchand Medcity, New Delhi, India
    2 Department of Cardiology, National Heart Institute, New Delhi, India
  • Received:2016-11-16 Accepted:2017-04-20 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-09-15
  • Contact: Hakim Irfan Showkat


BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in India and factors influencing the outcome.

METHODS: The outcome and related factors like demographics, aspects of the OHCA event, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge, among the 80 adult patients presenting to emergency department experiencing OHCA considered for resuscitation between January 2014 to April 2015, were analyzed, according to the guidelines of the Utstein consensus conference.

RESULTS: The survival rate to hospital admission was 32.5%, the survival rate to hospital discharge was 8.8% and with good cerebral performance category (CPC1) neurological status was 3.8%. Majority of OHCA was seen in elderly individuals between 51 to 60 years, predominately in males. Majority of OHCA were witnessed arrests (56.5%) with 1.3% bystander CPR rate, 92.5% arrests occurred at home, 96% presented with initial non-shockable rhythm and 92.5% with presumed cardiac etiology but survival was better in those who experienced OHCA at public place, in witnessed arrests, in patients who had shockable presenting rhythm and in those where CPR duration was ≤20 minutes.

CONCLUSION: Witnessed arrests, early initiation of CPR by bystanders, CPR duration ≤20 minutes, initial presenting shockable rhythm, OHCA with non-cardiac etiology are associated with a good outcome. To improve the outcome of CPR and the low survival rates after an OHCA event in India, focused strategies should be designed to set up an emergency medical system (EMS), to boost the rates of bystander CPR and education of the lay public in basic CPR.

Key words: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Survival to discharge, Shockable rhythm, Bystander CPR, Witnessed arrest, CPR duration, Cardiac etiology